LXX: New Insight to Day of Atonement’s Sabbath Standing

In looking into the matter of the Day of Atonement being a 7th day Sabbath more deeply, I’ve discovered something new in the Septuagint…well, “new” to me.
The Septuagint (LXX) refers to the Day of Atonement like this:

Lev 16:31 (LXX) This shall be to you a *most holy sabbath* (σάββατα σαββάτων), a rest, and ye shall humble your souls; it is a perpetual ordinance.

In the Greek, the word “sabbaton” (G4521) appears twice like this: σάββατα σαββάτων. The only other verse where this is phrased as such is Lev 23:32:

Lev 23:32 (LXX) It shall be a **holy sabbath** (σάββατα σαββάτων) to you; and ye shall humble your souls, from the ninth day of the month: from evening to evening ye shall keep your sabbaths.

The Day of Atonement is being identified not only as a “sabbaton” (Greek), but a “sabbaton sabbaton” (or however you pronounce it in Greek), hence the reason for it being translated as “holy”, I believe. The word that means “holy” in Greek (G40 “hagios”) is not found in either of these verses.

This second “sabbaton” is not the same as the Hebrew word “shabbathon” (H7677).

Bear with me here, I realize this can be confusing, but here goes…

Lev 16:31 (LXX) “This shall be to you a ***most holy (G4521) sabbath (G4521)***, a rest (G372), and ye shall humble your souls; it is a perpetual ordinance.”

Lev 16:31 (KJV) It shall be a ***sabbath (H7676)*** of rest (H7677) unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.

For whatever reason the Masoretic Text (of which the KJV is a translation) only shows “shabbath (H7676)” where the Septuagint (Greek translation of an earlier Hebrew text) shows “sabbaton (G4521) sabbaton (G4521)”.

Why the double mention?

Notice the two words translated as “rest”:
G372 = “anapausis” in Greek
H7677 = “shabbaton” in Hebrew

A “Shabbath Shabbathon” (H7676 H7677) in Hebrew is equivalent to a “Sabbaton Anapausis” (G4250 G372) in Greek:

Exo 31:15 (KJV)  Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the *sabbath* (H7676 “shabbath”) of *rest* (H7677 “shabbathon”), *holy* (H6944 “qodesh”) to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

Exo 31:15 (LXX) Six days thou shalt do works, but the seventh day is the *sabbath* (G4250 “sabbaton”), a *holy* (G40 “hagios”) *rest* (G372 “anapausis”) to the Lord; every one who shall do a work on the seventh day shall be put to death.

Here’s another example…

Exo 35:2 (KJV) Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an *holy* (H6944 “qodesh”) day, a *sabbath* (H7676 “shabbath”) of *rest* (H7677 “shabbathon”) to the LORD: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.

Exo 35:2 (LXX) Six days shalt thou perform works, but on the seventh day shall be rest–a *holy* (G40 “hagios”) *sabbath* (G4250) –a *rest* (G372 “anapausis”) for the Lord: every one that does work on it, let him die.

In these verses we see the Hebrew words (H#) that correlates with the Greek (G#) are:

H7676 “shabbath” -> G4250 “sabbaton” –> Sabbath
H7677 “shabbathon” -> G372 “anapausis” –> rest
H6944 “qodesh” -> G40 “hagios” –> holy

This proves out for all other mentions of “Shabbath (H7676) Shabbathon (H7677)” as well: Ex 16:23 Lev 23:3, Lev 25:4.

It appears to me that the Day of Atonement is not just a Sabbath of Rest, but it is a *Sabbath Sabbath of Rest*. I truly believe this is reaffirming what I already suspected.

The Day of Atonement is a 7th day Sabbath, but it is weightier than all others.

About Messyanic

Homesteading Wife, Homeschooling Mom and perpetual Bible student, continually taking the road less traveled. (@messyanic)
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4 Responses to LXX: New Insight to Day of Atonement’s Sabbath Standing

  1. Julie Caron says:

    Shabbat shalom,
    This makes perfect sense to me, however the Rabbinic calendar, nor the Gregorian calendar support what is written. The problem is finding the scriptural calendar, and even then it is most difficult to follow if you find it. The world is on the Gregorian calendar for purposes of commerce, since we live in the world but are not of the world, actually you might say that we are living in the diaspora, keeping Yahueh’s calendar is not possible unless you are self employed, or you do not rely on the world system for your income.

    Keeping the Scriptural calendar will truly make you set-apart. I have been studying the calendar for a number of years. At the present time, my thinking is that we, the ones set-apart are not in the right time frame for the Scriptural calendar to be kept, we might have to wait for Yahushua to set up Yahueh’s calendar. I just don’t know, but I hunger for truth and righteousness, with a deep desire to observe the moed at the time that is pleasing to our Father in Heaven.

    I am blessed that you are searching for truth, may Elohim bless all your efforts in regard to truth.

  2. Lisa says:

    Wow! It really does appear to confirm that the DoA truly falls on a 7th day Shabbat. Catching theses glimpses is so exciting and encouraging.

    I’m becoming more and more convinced we won’t know how to truly keep Shabbat (or the moedim) – until Abba tells us ‘this is the first day of the first chodesh’ like He did with the Israelites when they came out of Egypt and went into the wilderness.

    The yearning grows in me, with the dawning realisation that we’ll probably be brought pretty low at the point Abba begins to teach us ‘this is the first day of the first chodesh’. What an encouragement that will be to us! To k.n.o.w. Abba is faithful and is leading us to be truly set apart in the darker times coming.
    Shalom and thanks for sharing this!! xo

  3. Temira Sima says:

    Great pearl Carrie! I keep thinking “A Sabbath’s Sabbath” that is profound indeed!

  4. Tracy Fultz says:

    Thank you!!!!! I’ve been searching for hours for exactly what you had already found! I’ve worked it the Enochian calendar and having the Day of Atonement fall yearly on a 7th day Sabbath was troublesome for me, and I prayed for clarification on the whole calendar. Now I’m certain that I’m on the right path. Thank you for this information.

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