In looking into the matter of the Day of Atonement being a 7th day Sabbath more deeply, I’ve discovered something new in the Septuagint…well, “new” to me.
The Septuagint (LXX) refers to the Day of Atonement like this:
Lev 16:31 (LXX) This shall be to you a *most holy sabbath* (σάββατα σαββάτων), a rest, and ye shall humble your souls; it is a perpetual ordinance.
In the Greek, the word “sabbaton” (G4521) appears twice like this: σάββατα σαββάτων. The only other verse where this is phrased as such is Lev 23:32:
Lev 23:32 (LXX) It shall be a **holy sabbath** (σάββατα σαββάτων) to you; and ye shall humble your souls, from the ninth day of the month: from evening to evening ye shall keep your sabbaths.
The Day of Atonement is being identified not only as a “sabbaton” (Greek), but a “sabbaton sabbaton” (or however you pronounce it in Greek), hence the reason for it being translated as “holy”, I believe. The word that means “holy” in Greek (G40 “hagios”) is not found in either of these verses.
This second “sabbaton” is not the same as the Hebrew word “shabbathon” (H7677).
Bear with me here, I realize this can be confusing, but here goes…
Lev 16:31 (LXX) “This shall be to you a ***most holy (G4521) sabbath (G4521)***, a rest (G372), and ye shall humble your souls; it is a perpetual ordinance.”
Lev 16:31 (KJV) It shall be a ***sabbath (H7676)*** of rest (H7677) unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.
For whatever reason the Masoretic Text (of which the KJV is a translation) only shows “shabbath (H7676)” where the Septuagint (Greek translation of an earlier Hebrew text) shows “sabbaton (G4521) sabbaton (G4521)”.
Why the double mention?
Notice the two words translated as “rest”:
G372 = “anapausis” in Greek
H7677 = “shabbaton” in Hebrew
A “Shabbath Shabbathon” (H7676 H7677) in Hebrew is equivalent to a “Sabbaton Anapausis” (G4250 G372) in Greek:
Exo 31:15 (KJV) Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the *sabbath* (H7676 “shabbath”) of *rest* (H7677 “shabbathon”), *holy* (H6944 “qodesh”) to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.
Exo 31:15 (LXX) Six days thou shalt do works, but the seventh day is the *sabbath* (G4250 “sabbaton”), a *holy* (G40 “hagios”) *rest* (G372 “anapausis”) to the Lord; every one who shall do a work on the seventh day shall be put to death.
Here’s another example…
Exo 35:2 (KJV) Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an *holy* (H6944 “qodesh”) day, a *sabbath* (H7676 “shabbath”) of *rest* (H7677 “shabbathon”) to the LORD: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.
Exo 35:2 (LXX) Six days shalt thou perform works, but on the seventh day shall be rest–a *holy* (G40 “hagios”) *sabbath* (G4250) –a *rest* (G372 “anapausis”) for the Lord: every one that does work on it, let him die.
In these verses we see the Hebrew words (H#) that correlates with the Greek (G#) are:
H7676 “shabbath” -> G4250 “sabbaton” –> Sabbath
H7677 “shabbathon” -> G372 “anapausis” –> rest
H6944 “qodesh” -> G40 “hagios” –> holy
This proves out for all other mentions of “Shabbath (H7676) Shabbathon (H7677)” as well: Ex 16:23 Lev 23:3, Lev 25:4.
It appears to me that the Day of Atonement is not just a Sabbath of Rest, but it is a *Sabbath Sabbath of Rest*. I truly believe this is reaffirming what I already suspected.
The Day of Atonement is a 7th day Sabbath, but it is weightier than all others.